Revista de Metalurgia, Vol 55, No 1 (2019)

La eliminación de metales tóxicos presentes en efluentes líquidos mediante resinas de cambio iónico. Parte IX: Plomo(II))/H+/Amberlite IR-120


https://doi.org/10.3989/revmetalm.138

Francisco José Alguacil
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM, CSIC), España
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0247-3384

Resumen


El plomo está considerado como un metal altamente peligroso para los seres humano, por lo que su eliminación, de cualquier medio que lo contenga, suele ser de la máxima importancia. Comúnmente y a valores de pH inferiores a 5-6, este elemento esta presente en los medios acuosos como catión Pb2+. En el presente trabajo se investiga la eliminación de este catión de disoluciones acuosas empleando la tecnología de cambio iónico con la resina Amberlite IR-120. Se consideran una serie de variables que pueden afectar al proceso de carga del metal en la resina: velocidad de agitación del sistema, temperatura, dosificación de la resina y tamaño de partícula de la misma y pH del medio acuoso. La carga del metal responde a la isoterma de Freundlich, siendo el proceso endotérmico y no espontáneo, el mecanismo de carga no depende del tamaño de partícula de la resina y responde a un mecanismo por difusión en el medio acuoso. La eliminación del plomo(II) de disoluciones acuosas mediante la resina compite de forma favorable con respecto a los resultados obtenidos cuando se emplean nanotubos de carbono de pared múltiple como adsorbentes del Pb2+. En ensayos llevado a cabo con disoluciones binarias, la carga del Pb2+ en la resina también compite favorablemente con respecto a la de otros metales base en forma catiónica. La elución del plomo(II) se puede llevar a cabo de forma casi cuantitativa con disoluciones de HCl y distintas condiciones experimentales.

Palabras clave


Amberlite IR-120; Efluentes líquidos; Eliminación; Nanotubos de carbono de pared múltiple; Plomo(II)

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Referencias


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