Revista de Metalurgia <p><strong>Revista de Metalurgia</strong> is a scientific journal published by <a title="Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a> and edited by the <a title="Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas</a>, published in English and Spanish and intended for researchers, plant technicians and other professionals engaged in the area of Metallic Materials.</p> <p>The journal addresses the main topics of alloy phases; transformations; transport phenomena; mechanical behavior; physical chemistry; environment; welding &amp; joining; surface treatment; electronic, magnetic &amp; optical material; solidification; materials processing; composite materials; biomaterials; light metals; corrosion and materials recycling.</p> <p><strong>Revista de Metalurgia</strong> focuses on the latest research in all aspects of metallurgy, physical metallurgy and materials science. It explores relationships among processing, structure, and properties of materials; publishes critically reviewed, original research of archival significance.</p> <p>Founded in 1965 it began to be available online in 2007, in PDF format, maintaining printed edition until 2014. That year it became an electronic journal publishing in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS. Contents of previous issues are also available in PDF files.</p> <p><strong>Revista de Metalurgia</strong> is indexed since 1997 in <a title="WOS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>: <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a> (JCR), <a title="SCI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Science Citation Index Expanded</a> (SCI) and <a title="CC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Current Contents</a> - Engineering, Computing &amp; Technology; <a title="SCOPUS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a title="CWTSji" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CWTS Leiden Ranking</a> (Journal indicators) Core publication, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> and other national and international databases. It is indexed in Latindex Catalogue 2.0 and has obtained the FECYT Seal of Quality.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2022 (2 años): <strong>0.800</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2022 (5 años): <strong>0.700</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF:</strong> <strong>66</strong>/78 (Q4, Metallurgy &amp; Metallurgy Engineering)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Citation Indicator (JCI)</strong> 2022: <strong>0.23</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI:</strong> <strong>64</strong>/90 (Q3, Metallurgy &amp; Metallurgy Engineering)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor / Percentile</strong> 2022: <strong>0.00006</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Article influence/ Percentile</strong> 2022: <strong>0.058</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor Category: </strong>Physics<br />Source: University of Washington©, <a href=";searchby=issn&amp;orderby=year" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EigenFACTOR</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 40px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Open Access</p> <p class="check">No APC</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> <p class="check">Plagiarism Detection</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Interoperability</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> <p class="check">Research Data Policy</p> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> <p class="check">Online First</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en-US Revista de Metalurgia 0034-8570 <strong>© CSIC.</strong> Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of <strong>Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas</strong>, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.<br /><br />All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “<strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</strong>” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">basic information</a></strong> and the <strong><a href="" target="_blank">legal text</a></strong> of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.<br /><br />Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed. Machinability of B4C-reinforced Al2014 metal matrix composites in electric discharge machining <p>This study was conducted to clarify the effect of various variables such as the type of electric discharge machining, discharge current and reinforcement content of B<sub>4</sub>C-reinforced Al alloy metal matrix composite on workpiece removal rate, electrode wear rate and material removed per discharge pulse, which are not extensively explored in the literature. B<sub>4</sub>C-reinforced Al2014 matrix composite samples containing 5 and 10 vol.-% B<sub>4</sub>C particles, produced by vacuum infiltration method, were machined with electric discharge machining and powder mixed electric discharge machining at various discharge current settings. In both types of machining processes, the workpiece removal rate and electrode wear rates decreased and increased, respectively, when the reinforcement contents of the composites increased. However, powder-mixed electric discharge machining enhanced the machining stability, and a comparatively higher workpiece removal rate was observed with a decreased electrode wear rate. On the other hand, by increasing the discharge current, which was also verified as the most effective machining parameter in variance analysis, both workpiece removal rate and electrode wear rate values increased in both machining techniques. The experimentally calculated volumetric workpiece material removed by a discharge pulse was compared to that of a model in the literature, and they were also found to be consistent with each other.</p> Omid Farid Ahmadinia Gökhan Küçüktürk Ferah Sucularlı Hakan Gürün Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 58 4 e228 e228 10.3989/revmetalm.228 Comparative study of the behaviour of several reinforcement materials in titanium matrix produced by Rapid Sinter Pressing Manufacturing <p>Regarding titanium matrix composites (TMCs), their properties strongly depend on the reinforcement material employed for their manufacturing; this may lead to a multitude of investigations on TMCs. Considering the diverse typology of the reinforcement, six types of ceramic particles were tested in this investigation: B<sub>4</sub>C, SiB<sub>6</sub>, TiB<sub>2</sub>, TiC, TiN, and BN. In order to compare their behaviour and their own influence on the properties of the TMCs, the same ratio was employed in the starting materials, 30% volume. Among the techniques for developing TMCs, a significant number of authors propose Powder Metallurgy as a favourable route. In this framework, the novel Rapid Sinter Pressing technique was employed to perform the present study, due to its flexibility, repeatability, and reproducibility, as well as short-run cycle times. The processing temperature (930 °C) was set with the intention of evaluating how the reinforcements behave differently depending on their reactivity with the Ti matrix. In this regard, the main objective of the research was to carry out a comparison on the behaviour of seven TMCs fabricated with similar operational parameters via RSP.</p> Eva M. Pérez-Soriano Isabel Montealegre-Meléndez Cristina Arévalo Michael Kitzmantel Erich Neubauer Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 58 4 e229 e229 10.3989/revmetalm.229 Microstructure and mechanical properties on friction stir processed TIG welded dissimilar joints of AA5052-H32 and AA5083-H111 alloys by grey approach <p>In this investigation, the mechanical behaviour and microstructural examination of friction stir processed (FSP) Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welded aluminium dissimilar alloys has been studied. The research is proposed to enhance the mechanical characteristics of the aluminium alloy 5052-H32 and aluminium alloy 5083-H111 TIG FSP welded joints. Initially, the TIG welding was done to join aluminium alloy 5052-H32 and aluminium alloy 5083-H111 by employing a ER5356 filler rod. TIG welding is performed by using the following parameters: tungsten electrode diameter (2.4 mm), Current (170 A) and a shielding gas flow rate (argon) (11 l·min<sup>-1</sup>). Secondarily, the FSP is carried out on TIG welded aluminium alloy 5052-H32 and aluminium alloy 5083-H111 by using different tool rotation speeds (850 to 1050 rpm), tool traverse speeds (24 to 32 mm·min<sup>-1</sup>) and different number of passes (1 to 3) with a cylindrical pin less tool. The FSP parameters are designed by the Taguchi L9 array to compute the optimized parameters. The tensile strength, microhardness and % of elongation are determined for a total of nine specimens. Finally, the grey relational analysis (GRA) is employed to find out the best FSP parameter out of the set of FSP parameters. The optimal parameters of FSP are a tool rotation speed of 950 rpm, tool traverse speed of 28 mm/min and number of passes of 3. The number of passes are the most influencing factor when compared to other two FSP parameters.</p> Chandrasekaran Chanakyan Dhanaraj Antony Prabu Sivasamy Alagarsamy Mark Martin Charles Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 58 4 e230 e230 10.3989/revmetalm.230 TiN hard coating as a candidate reference material for surface metrology in chemistry: characterization and quantification by bulk and surface analyses techniques <p>This study presents the synthesis and characterization of TiN hard coatings as a candidate reference material for surface metrology in chemistry. TiN coatings were grown on a silicon wafer with (111) orientation using dc reactive magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction confirms that the diffraction phase of TiN coatings is polycrystalline, electron microscopy demonstrates that the TiN coatings presents pyramidal-shaped grains ranging from sub-micrometer to nano-size scale and with an average thickness of 666 nm. According to micro Raman results, the presence of LO phonon modes confirms that the TiN coatings are crystalline in nature and no impurities are detected. The mechanical properties at the nanoscale are evaluated using resonance tracking acoustic force atomic microscopy. The chemical composition of the TiN reveals a close 1:1 atomic ratio. The ANOVA is used to evaluate the homogeneity of the TiN via a homogeneity test according to the&nbsp;ISO Guide 35:2017, while, regarding the chemical composition of the Ti, the Fisher’s test demonstrates that the batch can be considered as homogeneous.</p> José Manuel Juárez-García Jorge Morales-Hernández Aime Gutiérrez-Peralta Edgar Cruz-Valeriano Rafael Ramírez-Bon José M. Yañez Limón Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 58 4 e231 e231 10.3989/revmetalm.231 Effect of surface macroroughness on the microstructure and sliding wear properties of Al2O3 + 13 wt.% TiO2 thick coatings <div class="titleabstract | box">ABSTRACT</div> <div class="box1"> <p>Two macro-roughness patterns namely spiral grooving and diamond knurling were performed on an AISI/SAE 1045 cylindrical steel bar. Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>&nbsp;+ 13 wt.-% TiO<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;powder was deposited by utilizing a multi-pass torch. Microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance were analyzed. The presence of both γ-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>&nbsp;and α-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>&nbsp;throughout the coating was promoted by partially melted and un-melted particles; however, the formation of interlayers of hard α-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>&nbsp;was influenced by the re-heating during the multi-pass torch causing transformation from γ-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>→α-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>. Knurling pattern specimens contained less defects owe to a suitable splat accommodation thus strengthening the inter-splat anchorage. The improved sliding wear resistance was influenced by both the combination of γ-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>&nbsp;(toughness) and α-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>&nbsp;(hardness) phases and, predominantly by the reduced porosity and micro-cracks in specimens with the knurling pattern.</p> </div> Sara I. Zesati-Belmontes Enrique A. López-Baltazar José J. Ruiz-Mondragón Haideé Ruiz-Luna Francisco Alvarado-Hernández Víctor H. Baltazar-Hernández Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 58 4 e232 e232 10.3989/revmetalm.232