Revista de Metalurgia https://revistademetalurgia.revistas.csic.es/index.php/revistademetalurgia <p><strong>Revista de Metalurgia</strong> is a scientific journal published by <a title="Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas" href="https://www.csic.es/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a> and edited by the <a title="Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas" href="http://www.cenim.csic.es/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas</a>, published in English and Spanish and intended for researchers, plant technicians and other professionals engaged in the area of Metallic Materials.</p> <p>The journal addresses the main topics of alloy phases; transformations; transport phenomena; mechanical behavior; physical chemistry; environment; welding &amp; joining; surface treatment; electronic, magnetic &amp; optical material; solidification; materials processing; composite materials; biomaterials; light metals; corrosion and materials recycling.</p> <p><strong>Revista de Metalurgia</strong> focuses on the latest research in all aspects of metallurgy, physical metallurgy and materials science. It explores relationships among processing, structure, and properties of materials; publishes critically reviewed, original research of archival significance.</p> <p>Founded in 1965 it began to be available online in 2007, in PDF format, maintaining printed edition until 2014. That year it became an electronic journal publishing in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS. Contents of previous issues are also available in PDF files.</p> <p><strong>Revista de Metalurgia</strong> is indexed since 1997 in <a title="WOS" href="https://clarivate.com/webofsciencegroup/solutions/web-of-science/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>: <a title="JCR" href="https://clarivate.com/webofsciencegroup/solutions/journal-citation-reports/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a> (JCR), <a title="SCI" href="https://clarivate.com/webofsciencegroup/solutions/webofscience-scie/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Science Citation Index Expanded</a> (SCI) and <a title="CC" href="https://clarivate.com/webofsciencegroup/solutions/webofscience-current-contents-connect/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Current Contents</a> - Engineering, Computing &amp; Technology; <a title="SCOPUS" href="https://www.elsevier.com/solutions/scopus" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a title="CWTSji" href="http://www.journalindicators.com/indicators/journal/28343" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CWTS Leiden Ranking</a> (Journal indicators) Core publication, <a href="https://redib.org/Serials/Record/oai_revista456-revista-de-metalurgia" target="_blank" rel="noopener">REDIB</a>, <a href="https://doaj.org/toc/1988-4222?source=%7B%22query%22%3A%7B%22filtered%22%3A%7B%22filter%22%3A%7B%22bool%22%3A%7B%22must%22%3A%5B%7B%22terms%22%3A%7B%22index.issn.exact%22%3A%5B%220034-8570%22%2C%221988-4222%22%5D%7D%7D%2C%7B%22term%22%3A%7B%22_type%22%3A%22article%22%7D%7D%5D%7D%7D%2C%22query%22%3A%7B%22match_all%22%3A%7B%7D%7D%7D%7D%2C%22size%22%3A100%2C%22_source%22%3A%7B%7D%7D" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> and other national and international databases. It is indexed in Latindex Catalogue 2.0 and has obtained the FECYT Seal of Quality.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2021 (2 años): <strong>0.837</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2021 (5 años): <strong>0.653</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF:</strong> <strong>65</strong>/79 (Q4, Metallurgy &amp; Metallurgy Engineering)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="http://clarivate.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="https://clarivate.com/webofsciencegroup/solutions/journal-citation-reports/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Citation Indicator (JCI)</strong> 2021: <strong>0.26</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI:</strong> <strong>62</strong>/91 (Q3, Metallurgy &amp; Metallurgy Engineering)<br />Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="http://clarivate.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="https://clarivate.com/webofsciencegroup/solutions/journal-citation-reports/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor / Percentile</strong> 2021: <strong>0.00007</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Article influence/ Percentile</strong> 2021: <strong>0.064</strong><br /><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor Category: </strong>Physics<br />Source: University of Washington©, <a href="http://www.eigenfactor.org/projects/journalRank/rankings.php?search=0034-8570&amp;searchby=issn&amp;orderby=year" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EigenFACTOR</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 40px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Open Access</p> <p class="check">No APC</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> <p class="check">Plagiarism Detection</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Interoperability</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> <p class="check">Research Data Policy</p> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML-JATS</p> <p class="check">Online First</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en-US Revista de Metalurgia 0034-8570 <strong>© CSIC.</strong> Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of <strong>Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas</strong>, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.<br /><br />All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “<strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</strong>” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the <strong><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/deed.en" target="_blank">basic information</a></strong> and the <strong><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode" target="_blank">legal text</a></strong> of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.<br /><br />Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed. On the application of the forming limit diagrams for quality control of blanks for wheelbarrow of ASTM A1008 carbon steel https://revistademetalurgia.revistas.csic.es/index.php/revistademetalurgia/article/view/1537 <p>The effectivity of the forming limit diagrams in manufacturing wheelbarrow by deep-drawing is shown because of the high material scrap rate which reduces productivity. Several chemical, mechanical testing and microstructural analysis were performed to examine sheet quality and their impact on these diagrams. Chemical analysis revealed that Steel 1 and Steel 3 sheets fulfilled the specification without assuring adequate forming process. However, the higher titanium content of Steel 2 improved its formability since it promoted the formation of fine precipitates, thus refining the grain size. This steel had the highest ASTM grain size number G (9.11), which is the lowest average grain size (13 µm) compared to the other steels, which had G values in the range 8.7 to 9.11. Moreover, Steel 2 sheets had the greatest plastic strain ratio (rm = 1.80), the highest strain-hardening exponent (n = 0.250), the lowest anisotropy&nbsp;<em>∆</em>r = 0.31), yielding better results in deep-drawing strain distribution, the highest forming limit strain (28%) and the highest uniform elongation zone, favoring that failure sites did not occur.</p> Celso Cruz-González Benjamín Vargas-Arista Iván León-Méndez Isidro Guzmán-Flores Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-05 2022-07-05 58 2 e218 e218 10.3989/revmetalm.218 Finite element analysis of the springback behavior after V bending process of sheet materials obtained by Differential Speed Rolling (DSR) method https://revistademetalurgia.revistas.csic.es/index.php/revistademetalurgia/article/view/1538 <p>The Differential Speed Rolling (DSR) process is a severe plastic deformation method used in the production of microstructured materials with both high deformation and superior mechanical properties. This study has focused on determining the springback behavior and formability of the materials obtained by using the DSR method after the V bending process. Rolling processes were carried out at 4 different rolling speed ratios (1.0, 1.33, 1.66, and 2.0), 25% thickness reduction ratio, and 2 different rolling temperatures (room temperature and 580 °C). Then, the rolled sheet materials were bent using 3 different bending die angles (60°, 90°, 120°). As a result of this study, the greatest plastic deformation was reached at a speed ratio of 2.0 at 580 °C. Again, the lowest springback was obtained at 580 °C. As the die angle increased, the springback decreased. Springback has occurred in the bending process of all sheet materials obtained by rolling. In the bending process of the unrolled sheet material, both spring-forward and springback events were observed depending on the die angle.</p> Vedat Taşdemir Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-05 2022-07-05 58 2 e219 e219 10.3989/revmetalm.219 Analysis of Tafel polarization scans of Magnesium-Steel galvanic couple under different corrosive environments at various temperatures https://revistademetalurgia.revistas.csic.es/index.php/revistademetalurgia/article/view/1539 <p>It is an attributed fact that magnesium, in normal conditions, behaves as active or anodic material and steel as a noble or cathodic material in a galvanic cell. In the current study, various experiments have been conducted to investigate the electrochemical behavior of magnesium and mild steel galvanic couples in tap water and 0.1M NaHCO<sub>3</sub>&nbsp;corrosive environments at different temperatures (40 ℃ to 80 ℃). The potentiodynamic results have confirmed that in tap water, magnesium acts as an anode as it corrodes itself and protects steel surfaces under the influence of galvanic action at selected temperatures. However, magnesium became passive under 0.1M NaHCO<sub>3</sub>&nbsp;making steel anodic, which deteriorates aggressively at higher temperatures in 0.1M NaHCO<sub>3</sub>. The polarity reversal phenomenon was also observed in the magnesium-steel couple when exposed to this environment. The microstructural examination has shown that passivation occurred due to the formation of an oxide layer that grew towards the steel side in the galvanic couple as the temperature increased. Thus, the study revealed that the magnesium would be more damaging to steel in a NaHCO<sub>3</sub>&nbsp;environment if utilized in the temperature range of 60 ℃to 80 ℃.</p> Muhammad Fahad Riaz Muhammad Samiuddin Mudassir Farooq Intizar Ali Shah Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-05 2022-07-05 58 2 e220 e220 10.3989/revmetalm.220 The removal of toxic metals from liquid effluents by ion exchange resins. Part XVII: Arsenic(V)/H+/Dowex 1x8 https://revistademetalurgia.revistas.csic.es/index.php/revistademetalurgia/article/view/1540 <p>The performance of anionic exchange resin Dowex 1x8 in the removal of arsenic(V) from aqueous solutions was investigated. Batch experimentation was carried out under different variables, including, the stirring speed applied on the system, the pH of the aqueous solution, resin dosage and temperature. Due to the characteristic speciation of arsenic(V) in aqueous phases, the removal of this element from the solution is negligible at highly acidic or alkaline pH values, but it is possible at the aqueous pH range of 4-9, thus, both HAsO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>&nbsp;and H<sub>2</sub>AsO<sub>4</sub><sup>-</sup>&nbsp;species are loaded onto the resin. At the above pH range, arsenic(V) uptake is exothermic. Different models are fitted to the experimental values in order to gain knowledge about this ion exchange system: rate law, kinetics and solute loading onto the resin. This loading is compared against the yielded using non-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The elution step is investigated using acidic solutions (HCl medium) as eluent, from the eluted solutions, arsenic(V) can be efficiently stabilized as ferric or calcium arsenates.</p> Francisco José Alguacil Esther Escudero Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-26 2022-07-26 58 2 e221 e221 10.3989/revmetalm.221 The effect of heat input on microstructure and HAZ expansion in dissimilar joints between API5L X80 / DSS 2205 steels using thermal cycles https://revistademetalurgia.revistas.csic.es/index.php/revistademetalurgia/article/view/1541 <p>In this research, the effect of the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process heat input upon the microstructure and development of the heat-affected zone in the dissimilar joint of API 5L X80/DS5 2205 steels was investigated by recording the thermal cycles with thermocouple implantation in the perpendicular direction of the weld line. The filler metal used (electrode) is DSS 2209. The microstructure of the base and weld metals and their interfaces at different heat inputs were investigated using the scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis technique (SEM/EDS) and optical microscopy (OM). The results indicated that the interface between the base metals and the weld metal has excellent consistency and that there is no evidence of cracks at different heat inputs. By increasing the heat input, it was determined that the amount of secondary austenite in the weld metal and heat-affected zone of 2205 steel had been increased. There occurred an epitaxial growth at the interface of 2209/2205, and there were a fine transition zone and Type II boundaries at the interface of 2209/ API 5L X80. The areas containing coarse, fine, and partially fine grains were detected in the heat-affected zone of the X80 steel. The thermal cycle results determined that the temperature peak in the areas away from the fusion line had increased by increasing the heat input and that the heat-affected zone of the two base metals, particularly the X80 steel, had been extended further.</p> Seyed Meisam Zahraei Reza Dehmolaei Ali Ashrafi Copyright (c) 2022 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-26 2022-07-26 58 2 e222 e222 10.3989/revmetalm.222