Wear performance of GGG60 ductile iron rollers coated with WC-Co by electro spark deposition





Coating, Cobalt, Electro spark deposition, Rolling, Tungsten carbide, Wear


Nodular cast irons are used in many industrial applications such as machine frames and body, rollers and engine blocks due to their higher strengths and ductility with good machinability comparable to grey cast irons. In this study, the outer surface of nodular cast irons (GGG-60) was coated with WC/Co using electro spark deposition (ESD). The aim of the study is to improve both the surface quality and wear behaviour with the coatings formed on the surface of the plastic deformation rollers, whose wear resistance decreases over the time due to high stress working conditions. Heat treatment at 950 ºC for 2 h was applied to the GGG60 specimen rollers and half of the rollers were uncoated and the other half was coated with WC-Co electrodes. The wear behaviour of the heat treated and coated surfaces was measured by ball-on-disc wear method using Al2O3 ball bearing with a diameter of 6 mm for a sliding distance of 250 m at a sliding rate of 6.5 m·s-1 under a dry condition, and using a load of 40 N. WC/Co coatings were successfully applied to rollers. In the SEM/EDS images, the presence of W, Fe, C, Co and Al elements in the coated part of the rollers and Fe, C and Al elements in the uncoated region were detected. It was concluded that Coating and heat treatment increased the wear resistance by nearly 5 times and decreased the friction coefficient by 2.13 times.


Download data is not yet available.


Aghajani, H., Hadavand, E., Peighambardoust, N.S., Khameneh-asl, S. (2020). Electro spark deposition of WC-TiC-Co-Ni cermet coatings on St52 steel. Surfaces and Interfaces 18, 100392. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfin.2019.100392

Alhussein, A., Risbet, M., Bastien, A., Chobaut, J.P., Balloy, D., Favergeon, J. (2014). Influence of silicon and addition elements on the mechanical behavior of ferritic ductile cast iron. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 605, 222-228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2014.03.057

Burkov, A.A., Pyachin, S.A. (2014). Investigation of WC-Co electrospark coatings with various carbon contents. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 23, 2034-2042. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-014-0974-z

Burkov, A.A., Krutikova, V.O. (2020). Deposition of Amorphous Hardening Coatings by Electrospark Treatment in a Mixture of Crystalline Granules. Russ. J. Non-Ferrous Met. 61, 132-141. https://doi.org/10.3103/S1067821220010022

Cárcel Carrasco, J., Salas Vicente, F., Martínez Corral, A., Pascual Guillamón, M. (2022). Weldability of ductile cast iron using AISI-316L stainless steel ER rod. Rev. Metal. 58 (3), e224. https://doi.org/10.3989/revmetalm.224

Chang, S.H., Chen, S.L. (2014). Characterization and properties of sintered WC-Co and WC-Ni-Fe hard metal alloys. J. Alloys Compd. 585, 407-413. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2013.09.188

Chen, Z., Zhou, Y. (2006). Surface modification of resistance welding electrode by electro-spark deposited composite coatings: Part I. Coating characterization. Surf. Coat. Tech. 201 (3-4), 1503-1510. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2006.02.015

Cheng, X., Jiang, Z., Wei, D., Hao, L., Wu, H., Xia, W., Zang, X., Luo, S., Jiang, L. (2017). Effects of surface preparation on tribological behaviour of a ferritic stainless steel in hot rolling. Wear 376-377, 1804-1813. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2017.01.106

Ebrahimnia, M., Ghaini, F. M., Xie, Y. J., Shahverdi, H. (2014). Microstructural characteristics of the built-up layer of a precipitation hardened nickel based superalloy by electrospark deposition. Surf. Coat. Tech. 258, 515-523. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2014.08.045

El Azhari, I., García, J., Zamanzade, M., Soldera, F., Pauly, C., Motz, C., Llanes, L., Mücklich, F. (2020). Micromechanical investigations of CVD coated WC-Co cemented carbide by micropillar compression. Mater. Des. 186, 108283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2019.108283

Faisal, M., El-Shenawy, E., Taha, M.A. (2019). Effect of Deformation Parameters on Microstructural Evolution of GGG 40 Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron Alloy. Mater. Sci. Appl. 10 (06), 433. https://doi.org/10.4236/msa.2019.106032

Guo, Z., Yuan, W., Sun, Y., Cai, Z., Zyu, Q. (2009). Thermodynamic assessment of the Si-Ta and Si-W systems. J. Phase Equilibria Diffus. 30, 564-570. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11669-009-9579-x

Jiang, W., Shen, L., Qiu, M., Wang, X., Fan, M., Tian, Z. (2018). Preparation of Ni-SiC composite coatings by magnetic field-enhanced jet electrodeposition. J. Alloys Compd. 762, 115-124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.05.097

Kayali, Y., Talaş, Ş. (2019). Investigation of wear and corrosion behaviour of AISI 316 L stainless steel coated by ESD surface modification. Prot. Met. Phys. Chem. Surf. 55, 1148-1153. https://doi.org/10.1134/S2070205119060170

Kayali, Y., Talaş, Ş. (2021). Investigation on Wear Behavior of Steels Coated with WC by ESD Technique. Prot. Met. Phys. Chem. Surf. 57, 106-112. https://doi.org/10.1134/S2070205120060131

Kim, Y.J., Shin, H., Park, H., Lim, J.D. (2008). Investigation into mechanical properties of austempered ductile cast iron (ADI) in accordance with austempering temperature. Mater. Lett. 62 (3), 357-360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2007.05.028

Korkmaz, K. (2015). Investigation and characterization of electrospark deposited chromium carbide-based coating on the steel. Surf. Coat. Tech. 272, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.04.033

Ling, C.L., Yajid, M.A.M., Tamin, M.N., Kamarudin, M., Taib, M.A.A., Nosbi, N., Ali, W.F.F.W. (2022). Effect of substrate roughness and PVD deposition temperatures on hardness and wear performance of AlCrN-coated WC-Co. Surf. Coat. Tech. 436, 128304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2022.128304

Luo, H., Leitch, M., Behnamian, Y., Ma, Y., Zeng, H., Luo, J.L. (2015). Development of electroless Ni-P/nano-WC composite coatings and investigation on its properties. Surf. Coat. Tech. 277, 99-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.07.011

Méndez-Medrano, K.O., Martínez-González, C.J., Alvarado-Hernández, F., Jiménez, O., Baltazar-Hernández, V.H., Ruiz-Luna, H. (2018). Microstructure and Properties Characterization of WC-Co-Cr Thermal Spray Coatings. JMMCE 6 (4), 482-497. https://doi.org/10.4236/jmmce.2018.64034

Moormann, R. (2011). Phenomenology of Graphite Burning in Air Ingress Accidents of HTRs. Sci. Technol. Nucl. Install., Article ID 589747. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/589747

Moura e Silva, C.W., Branco, J.R.T., Cavaleiro, A. (2006). Characterization of magnetron co-sputtered W-doped C-based films. Thin Solid Films 515 (3), 1063-1068. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2006.07.084

Pagano, N., Angelini, V., Ceschini, L., Campana, G. (2016). Laser Remelting for Enhancing Tribological Performances of a Ductile Iron. Procedia CIRP 41, 987-991. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2015.12.131

Phan, H.T., Tieu, A.K., Zhu, H., Kosasih, B., Zhu, Q., Grima, A., Ta, T.D. (2017). A study of abrasive wear on high-speed steel surface in hot rolling by Discrete Element Method. Tribol. Int. 110, 66-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2017.01.034

Rezende, B.A., dos Santos, A.J., Câmara, M.A., do Carmo, D.J., Houmard, M., Rodrigues, A.R., Campos Rubio, J.C. (2019). Characterization of ceramics coatings processed by Sol-Gel for cutting tools. Coatings 9 (11), 755. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9110755

Ruijun, W., Yiyu, Q., Jun, L. (2005). Interface behavior study of WC92-Co8 coating produced by electrospark deposition. Appl. Surf. Sci. 240 (1-4), 42-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2004.05.299

Rukanskis, M. (2019). Control of metal surface mechanical and tribological characteristics using cost effective electro-spark deposition. Surf. Eng. Appl. Electrochem. 55, 607-619. https://doi.org/10.3103/S1068375519050107

Tieu, A.K., Zhu, Q., Zhu, H., Lu, C. (2011). An investigation into the tribological behaviour of a work roll material at high temperature. Wear 273 (1), 43-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2011.06.003

Vernhes, L., Azzi, M., Klemberg-Sapieha, J.E. (2013). Alternatives for hard chromium plating: Nanostructured coatings for severe-service valves. Mater. Chem. Phys. 140 (2-3), 522-528. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2013.03.065

Wang, J.S., Meng, H.M., Yu, H.Y., Fan, Z.S., Sun, D.B. (2009). Characterization and wear behavior of WC-0.8 Co coating on cast steel rolls by electro-spark deposition. Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater. 16 (6), 707-713.

Xu, L., Fan, X., Wei, S., Liu, D., Zhou, H., Zhang, G., Zhou, Y. (2017). Microstructure and wear properties of high-speed steel with high molybdenum content under rolling-sliding wear. Tribol. Int. 116, 39-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2017.07.002

Yang, Z.R., Li, D.S., Wang, L., Wang, S.Q., Wei, M.X. (2013). Wear behavior and mechanism of spheroidal graphite cast iron. J. Iron Steel Res. Int. 20 (10), 81-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1006-706X(13)60181-8

Yuan, Z., Liu, L., Song, H., Lu, Z., Yang, B., Xiong, J., Jiang, X. (2021). Improvement in the universality of high-performance CVD diamond coatings on different WC-Co substrates by introducing multilayered diamond/β-SiC composite. Diam. Relat. Mater. 116, 108369. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diamond.2021.108369

Zhang, J., Zhang, N., Zhang, M., Lu, L., Zeng, D., Song, Q. (2014). Microstructure and mechanical properties of austempered ductile iron with different strength grades. Mater. Lett. 119, 47-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2013.12.086

Zhu, Y.C., Ding, C.X., Yukimura, K., Xiao, T.D., Strutt, P.R. (2001). Deposition and characterization of nanostructured WC-Co coating. Ceram. Int. 27 (6), 669-674. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-8842(01)00016-5



How to Cite

Buğday, M., Karalı, M., & Talaş, Şükrü. (2023). Wear performance of GGG60 ductile iron rollers coated with WC-Co by electro spark deposition. Revista De Metalurgia, 59(4), e249. https://doi.org/10.3989/revmetalm.249




Funding data

Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi
Grant numbers 221419003