Influence of heat input on the Charpy ductile fracture behavior of reheated HAZ in GMAW multilayer welded joints on HSLA steel using digital fractographic analysis
Keywords:Charpy energy, Digital Image Processing, Multi-layered GMAW process, Reheated HAZ
The effect of the heat input on the fracture behavior of reheated heat affected zone in multi-layered welded joints of ASTM A633 steel was evaluated using the impact test, fractography, scanning electron microscopy and digital images processing. The impact results indicated a reduction in the Charpy energy as a function of the wire feed rate, which was confirmed by fractographs after digital images processing that showed a decrease in volumetric fractions of micro-dimples in ductile failures accompanying the increase in feed rate, favoring brittle fractures in transgranular cleavage facets containing river marks. The minimum fractions in micro-voids and the largest size of facets showing a higher number of river patterns were found at maximum feed rate of 200 mm·s-1. Heterogeneous microstructure of heat affected zone formed by fine acicular ferrite network surrounded by allotriomorphic ferrite showed that an increase in the feed rate induced a grain refinement by the formation of acicular ferrite, which was linked to the deterioration of absorbed energy and brittle failures.
ASTM A633 (2013). Standard specification for normalized high strength low alloy structural steel plates. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA, pp. 1-3.
ASTM A36M (2014). Standard specification for carbon structural steel. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA, pp. 1-3.
ASTM E23 (2016). Standard test methods for notched bar impact testing of metallic materials. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA, pp. 2-8.
Atkins, G., Thiessen, D., Nissley, N., Adonyi, Y. (2002). Welding process effects in weldability testing of steels. Weld. J. 61-66. http://img2.aws.org/wj/supplement/04-2002- ATKINS-s.pdf.
AWS A5.18 (2005). Specification for carbon steel electrodes and rods for gas shielded arc welding. American Welding Society, Miami FL, USA, pp. 2-6.
DIN EN 1011-2 (2001). Recommendations for welding of metallic materials, Part 2: Arc Welding of ferritic steels. Deutsches Institut fur Normung, Germany, p. 9.
DIN EN 10025-2 (2004). Hot rolled products of structural steels, part 2: technical delivery conditions for non-alloy structural steels. Deutsches Institut fur Normung, Germany, pp. 18-29.
Easterling, K. (1992). Introduction to the physical metallurgy of welding. 2nd ed., Ed. Butterworths, London, England, pp. 1-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7506-0394-2.50006-X
Furuya, H., Aihara, S., Morita, K. (2007). A new proposal of HAZ toughness evaluation method - Part 1: HAZ toughness of structural steel in multilayer and single-layer weld joints. Weld. J. 86 (1), 1s-8s.
González, G.S., Vargas, A.B., Solís, J., García, V.F. (2010). Effect of wire feed rate on the microstructure and microhardness of multilayer weldment by GMAW process on ASTM A633 steel. 32th Congreso Internacional de Metalurgia y Materiales, Saltillo, Coahuila, México, pp. 1-11.
Guzmán, F.I., Vargas, A.B., Gasca, D.J.J., Cruz, G.C.E., González, A.M., Del Prado, V.J. (2017). Effect of torch weaving on the microstructure, tensile and impact resistances, and fracture of the HAZ and weld bead by robotic GMAW process on ASTM A36 steel. Soldagem & Inspeção 22 (1), 72-86. https://doi.org/10.1590/0104-9224/si2201.08
Karadeniz, E., Ozsarac, U., Yildiz, C. (2007). The effect process parameters on penetration in gas metal arc welding processes. Mater. Design 28 (2), 649-656. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2005.07.014
Khokhlov, M., Fischer, A., Rittel, D. (2012). Multi-scale stereo-photogrammetry system for fractographic analysis using scanning electron microscopy. Exp. Mech. 52 (8), 975-991. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11340-011-9582-0
Konegger, T. (2013). Image-analytical evaluation of the spatial distribution of particulate fillers in ceramic composites prepared via the polymer-derived ceramics route. Mater. Charact. 86, 9-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchar.2013.09.003
Mendoza, O., Vargas, B., Mendoza, J. (2013). Digital processing of fractographic images for welded joints on microalloy steel API 5L X52 aged. IEEE Lat. Am. T. 11 (1), 172-176. https://doi.org/10.1109/TLA.2013.6502798
Nedbal, I., Siegl, J., Kunz, J., Lauschmann, H. (2008). Fractographic reconstitution of fatigue crack history - Part I. FFEMS 31 (2), 164-176. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2695.2007.01211.x
Qiu, H., Mori, H., Enoki, M., Kishi, T. (2000). Fracture mechanism and toughness of the welding heat-affected zone in structural steel under static and dynamic loading. Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 31 (11), 2785-2791. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02830338
Salazar-Garrido, J.A., Terán-Gillén, J., García-Cerecero, G., Martínez-Madrid, M., Vargas-Arista, B. (2008). Metallurgical characterization of grain growth on weldment by SMAW process for a steel AISI 4140. 30th Congreso Internacional de Metalurgia y Materiales, Saltillo, Coahuila, México, pp. 97-105.
Shi, Y., Han, Z. (2008). Effect of weld thermal cycle on microstructure and fracture toughness of simulated heat-affected zone for a 800 MPa grade high strength low alloy steel. J. Mater. Process. Tech. 207 (1-3), 30-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2007.12.049
Terán, M.G., Capula, C.S.I., Velázquez, J.C., Angeles-Herrera, D., Torres, S.E., Querios, B.A. (2017). Fracture toughness and Charpy CVN data for A36 steel with wet welding. Soldagem Insp. 22 (3), 258-268. https://doi.org/10.1590/0104-9224/si2203.04
Thewlis, G. (2004). Classification and quantification of microstructure in steels. Mater. Sci. Tech. 20 (2), 143-160. https://doi.org/10.1179/026708304225010325
UNE EN ISO 15609-1 (2004). Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic materials. Part 1: Arc welding. AENOR Spain, pp. 6-10.
Wan, X.L., Wei, R., Wu, K.M. (2010). Effect of acicular ferrite formation on grain refinement in the coarse-grained region of heat-affected zone. Mater. Charact. 61 (7), 726-731 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchar.2010.04.004
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2019 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.© CSIC. Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.
All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the basic information and the legal text of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.
Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.