Characterization of iron nugget produced from iron ore concentrate in a microwave oven using a biomass-based reductant




Biomass, Carbonized tea plant waste, Composite pellet, Iron nugget, Magnetite, Microwave reduction


This study is concerned with the characterization of iron nuggets obtained from the reduction of an iron oxide concentrate in a microwave oven using a biomass-based reducing agent. In the experiments, the concentrate of iron ore consisting of hematite and magnetite minerals supplied from Elazig region and containing 67.29% Fe after enrichment, and as a reducing agent, tea plant wastes containing 94.68% C and 0.03% S after carbonization was used. Carbon required for the reduction of iron oxides to iron was stoichiometrically added to the concentrate with a grain size of -45 µm after its basicity ratio was adjusted. The composite pellets produced after the addition of reducing agent and flux (CaO) were subjected to reduction in a household microwave oven at different times. After the process, optimum (Fe3O4+Fe2O3)/C=1/4, basicity ratio (CaO+MgO)/(SiO2+Al2O3) =1.2 results were obtained. It was seen that the metallic part contained 96.6% Fe, 2.4% C after being separated from the slag and that the metallic phase was separated from the slag very easily. As a result of the microstructure investigations, it was found that the product obtained had similar properties to white cast iron properties.


Download data is not yet available.


Agrawal, B.B., Prasad, K.K., Sarkar, S.B., Ray, H.S. (2000). Cold bonded ore–coal composite pellets for sponge ironmaking Part 1 Laboratory Scale Development. Ironmak. Steelmak. 27 (6), 421-425.

Arancı, E.Ö., Bostancı, B., Benkli, Y.E., Boyrazlı, M., Çizmecioğlu, Z. (2017). The Effect of Using Potato Starch as a Binder on the Pellet Strength of Cold-Hardened Pellets. IATS’17, 3622220.

Benkli, Y.E. (2008). Soğukta Sertleşen Kompozit Peletlerin Yarı Ergitme Şartlarında İndirgenmesinin Araştırılması. PhD Thesis, YTU Institute of Science and Technology, Istanbul.

Benkli, Y.E., Boyrazli, M., Senoz, G.M.L., Cizmecioglu, Z. (2018). Investigation of reduction of magnetite based carbon composite pellets under semi-fusion conditions. Physicochem. Probl. Miner. Process. 54 (3), 621-628.

Bostancı, B., Cihangiroğlu, E., Boyrazlı, M., Arancı, E.Ö. (2017). The Effect of CMC Addition on Briquet Strength in Production of Cold Bonded Briquette with Iron Based Powders. IATS’17, 3622437.

Boyrazlı, M., Arancı Öztürk E., Benkli, Y.E. (2017). The Effect of the Grinding Time on the Mechanical Activation of MnO2 Ore and Tea Plant Waste Carbonization Product. J. Phys. Sci. Appl. 7 (4) 59-65. .

Clark, D.E., Sutton, W.H. (1996). Microwave Processing of Materials. Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 26, 299-330.

Çizmecioğlu, Z., Sarıdede, M.N. (2005). Türkiye İçin Uygun Sünger Demir Üretim Teknolojisinin Araştırılması. Project prepared by Erdemir Maden for YTU, Istanbul.

Demir, I. (2006). An investigation on the production of construction brick with processed waste tea. Build. Environ. 41 (9), 1274-1278.

Doru, M., Stefanescu (1990). ASM Handbook, Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys. ASM International, Volume 1, pp. 3-11.

Grote, K.H., Antonsson, E. (2008). Handbook of Mechanical Engineering. Springer, pp. 531.

Güler, Ö., Boyrazlı, M., Başgöz, Ö., Bostancı, B. (2017). The synthesis of carbon nanostructures from tea plant wastes. Can. Metall. Q. 56 (3), 349-359.

Güler, C., Pekşen, A. (2003). Using tea waste as a new casing material in mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (L.) sing.) cultivation. Bioresource Technology 88 (2), 153-156.

Gürten, İI (2008). Production of Adsorbent from Tea Waste and Investigation of Adsorption Properties of Produced Adsorbent. Master Thesis, Ankara University

Kawatra, S.K., Anameric, B., Eisele, T.C. (2005). Single-Step Ironmaking from Ore to Improve Energy Efficiency. Final Technical Report, DOE Award Number: DE-FG26-03NT41930, pp. 70.

Kıkuchı, S., Ito, S., Kobayashı, I., Tsuge, O., Tokuda, K. (2010). ITmk3 Process. Kobelco Technology Review N° 29, pp. 77-84.

Orhan, Y.O., Büyükgüngör, H. (1993). The removal of heavy-metals by using agricultural wastes. Water Sci. Technol. 28 (2), 247-255.

Peacey, J.G., Davenport, W.G. (1979). The Blast Furnace Theory and Practice. Pergamon Press, 1st Edition, pp. 7.

Smith, W.F. (1993). Structure and Properties of Engineering Alloys. McGraw-Hill Materials Science and Engineering Series, 2nd Edition, 1-41, 82, 336.

Standish, N., Worner, H. (1990). Microwave application in the reduction of metal oxides with carbon. JMPEE 25 (3), 177-180.

Sun, X., Hwang, J.Y., Huang, X., Li, B., Shi, S. (2005). Effects of Microwave on Molten Metals with Low Melting Temperatures. JMMCE 4 (2), 107-112.

Tiftik, B.E. (2006). Çay Fabrikası Atığının Pirolizi ve Piroliz Ürünlerinin İncelenmesi. Master Thesis, Ankara University.



How to Cite

Boyrazli, M., Aranci Öztürk, E., Emre Benkli, Y. ., & Aksu Canbay, C. (2023). Characterization of iron nugget produced from iron ore concentrate in a microwave oven using a biomass-based reductant. Revista De Metalurgia, 59(4), e250.