Thermal analysis and wear behavior of shell mold cast and graphite mold cast Mg-4Zn-(x)Zr alloys




Ceramic mold casting, Die casting, Gravity casting, Mg alloys, Mg-4Zn-(x)Zr alloy, Solidification, Tensile test, Wear properties


The grain refining effect of Zirconium (Zr) is known, nevertheless the effect of Zr amount and its effect on solidification and wear behavior of modified Mg-Zn alloys has not been adequately studied. Mg-4Zn-(x)Zr alloys alloyed with the addition of 0.5 wt.% to 4 wt.% Zr element are melted and poured into two different casting molds and thermal analyzes were performed. Casting microstructure, solidification behavior, phase transformations, grain size, thermal analysis curves and wear properties were examined. The microstructure was modified by the addition of Zr and the grain size was reduced for both graphite and ceramic mold materials. Maximum tensile strength was obtained by adding 1% Zr (170 MPa) and 4Zr (105-110 HRB) using graphite mold, respectively. The maximum room temperature tensile strength was achieved on the Mg-4Zn-1Zr alloy the elongation was 4.9 percent and the tensile strength was 138 MPa. The max hot tensile value was achieved on the 2 wt% Zr added alloys. The wear rate of Mg–4Zn alloy decreased with increasing Zr element up to 2 wt% Zr. Addition of more than 2% by weight of Zr caused an increase in microporosity in the microstructure. Due to the microporosity caused by the Zr addition, the wear rate was slightly reduced.


Download data is not yet available.


Ali, Y., Qiu, D., Jiang, B., Pan, F., Zhang, M.-X. (2015). Current research progress in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys: A review article. J. Alloys Compd. 619, 639-651.

Arroyave, R., Liu, Z.K. (2005). Thermodynamics of Mg-Zn-Zr: Implication on the effect of Zr on grain refining of Mg-Zn alloys. In Magnesium Technology. TMS Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, USA, pp. 203-208.

Barber, L.P. (2004). Characterization of the Solidification Behavior and Resultant Microstructures of Mg-Al Alloys. A Thesis of Master, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, pp. 10-46.

Bazhenov, V.E., Koltygin, A.V., Sung, M.C., Park, S.H., Titov, A.Y., Bautin, V.A., Matveev, S.V., Belov, M.V., Belov, V.D., Malyutin, K.V. (2020). Design of Mg-Zn-Si-Ca casting magnesium alloy with high thermal conductivity. J. Magnes. Alloy 8 (1), 184-191.

Buzolin, R.H., Tolnai, D., Mendis, C.L., Stark, A., Schell, N., Pinto, H., Kainer, K.U., Hort, N. (2015). Investigation of compression behavior of Mg-4Zn-2(Nd,Gd)-0.5Zr at 350 ºC by in itu Synchrotron Radiation Diffraction. In Magnesium Technology. TMS, pp. 103-107.

Cai, S., Lei, T., Li, N., Feng, F. (2012). Effects of Zn on microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of Mg-Zn alloys. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 32 (8), 2570-2577.

Cao, P., Qian, M., StJohn, D.H. (2005). Native grain refinement of magnesium alloys. Scripta Mater. 53 (7), 841-844. Chalisgaonkar, R. (2020). Insight in applications, manufacturing and corrosion behaviour of magnesium and its alloys - A review. Mater. Today Proc. 26 (2), 1060-1071.

Dadić, Z., Živković, D., Čatipović, N., Marinić-Kragić, I. (2019). Influence of steel preheat temperature and molten casting alloy AlSi9Cu3(Fe) impact speed on wear of X38CrMoV5-1 steel in high pressure die casting conditions. Wear 424-425, 15-22.

Decker, R.F., Berman, T.D., Miller, V.M., Jones, J.W., Pollock, T.M., LeBeau, S.E. (2019). Alloy Design and Processing Design of Magnesium Alloys Using 2nd Phases. JOM 71, 2219-2226.

Dobrzański, L.A., Kr.l, M., Tański, T., Maniara, R. (2009). Effect of cooling rate on the solidification behavior of magnesium alloys. ACMSSE 1 (1), 21-24.

Dobrzański, L.A., Kr.l, M., Tański, T. (2011). Effect of cooling rate and aluminum contents on the MgAl-Zn alloys' structure and mechanical properties. In Effect of casting, plastic forming or surface technologies on the structure and properties of the selected engineering materials. Volume 1, Open Access Library, pp. 9-54.

El Mahallawy, N., Ahmed Diaa, A., Akdesir, M., Palkowski, H. (2017). Effect of Zn addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of cast, rolled and extruded Mg-6Sn-xZn alloys. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 680, 47-53.

Godzierz, M., Olsz.wka-Myalska, A., Wrześniowski, P. (2019). Wear resistance of composites with Mg-Zn-RE-Zr alloy matrix and open-celled carbon foam. Mater. Eng. 1, 16-22.

He, M.L., Luo, T.J., Zhou, J.X., Yang, Y.S. (2018). Microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast Mg-4Zn-0.5Zr- 0.2Cu-0.2Ce alloy. Mater. Sci. Technol. 34 (11), 1370-1378.

Jamesh, M.I., Wu, G., Zhao, Y., McKenzie, D.R., Bilek, M.M.M., Chu, P.K. (2015). Electrochemical corrosion behavior of biodegradable Mg-Y-RE and Mg-Zn-Zr alloys in Ringer's solution and simulated body fluid. Corros. Sci. 91, 160-184.

Kapinos, D., Augustyn, B., Szymanek, M. (2014). Methods of introducing alloying elements into liquid magnesium. Metall. Foundry Eng. 40 (3), 141-160.

Karakulak, E. (2019). A review: Past, present and future of grain refining of magnesium castings. J. Magnes. Alloy 7 (3), 355-369.

Kurnaz, S.C., Sevik, H., A.ıkg.z, S., .zel, A. (2011). Influence of titanium and chromium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of squeeze cast Mg-6Al alloy. J. Alloys Compd. 509 (6), 3190-3196.

Li, Q., Wang, Q., Wang, Y., Zeng, X., Ding, W. (2007). Effect of Nd and Y addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast Mg-Zn-Zr alloy. J. Alloys Compd. 427 (1-2), 115-123.

Li, J., Lu, Y., Zhang, H., Xin, L. (2015). Effect of grain size and hardness on fretting wear behavior of Inconel 600 alloys. Tribol. Int. 81, 215-222.

Mandal, D., Murmu, L., Choudhary, C., Singh, G., Sahoo, K.L. (2019). Influence of alloying elements and grain refiner on microstructure, mechanical and wear properties of Mg-Al- Zn alloys. Can. Metall. Q. 58 (2), 241-251.

NovaCast (2020). Shell Mould Casting. Accessed 04.02.21.

Ozarslan, S., Şevik, H., Sorar, İ. (2019). Microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of novel Mg-Sn-Ce alloys produced by high pressure die casting. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 105, 110064.

Peterson Enterprises (2020). Graphite Mold Casting. Accessed 04.02.2021.

Prabhu, D.B., Muthuraja, C., Nampoothiri, J., Gopalakrishnan, P., Ravi, K.R. (2018). Solidification Analysis of Mg-4Zn- xSr System to Study Phase Transformations in Mg-Rich Corner. Trans. Indian Inst. Met. 71, 2801-2806.

Ren, Y.P, Guo, Y., Chen, D., Li, S., Pei, W.L., Qin, G.W. (2011). Isothermal section of Mg-Zn-Zr ternary system at 345 ºC. Calphad 35 (3), 411-415.

Shuai, C., Yang, Y., Wu, P., Lin, X., Liu, Y., Zhou, Y., Feng, P., Liu, X., Peng, S. (2017). Laser rapid solidification improves corrosion behavior of Mg-Zn-Zr alloy. J. Alloys Compd. 691, 961-969.

Snopiński, P., Kr.l, M., Tański, T., Krupińska, B. (2018). Effect of cooling rate on microstructural development in alloy ALMG9. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 133, 379-390.

Song, J., She, J., Chen, D., Pan, F. (2020). Latest research advances on magnesium and magnesium alloys worldwide. J. Magnes. Alloys 8 (1), 1-41.

Srinivasan, A., Huang, Y., Mendis, C.L., Blawert, C., Kainer, K.U., Hort, N. (2014). Investigations on microstructures, mechanical and corrosion properties of Mg-Gd-Zn alloys. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 595, 224-234.

Vinogradov, A., Orlov, D., Estrin, Y. (2012). Improvement of fatigue strength of a Mg-Zn-Zr alloy by integrated extrusion and equal-channel angular pressing. Scripta Mater. 67 (2) 209-212.

Wang, C., Sun, M., Zheng, F., Peng, L., Ding, W. (2014). Improvement in grain refinement efficiency of Mg-Zr master alloy for magnesium alloy by friction stir processing. J. Magnes. Alloys 2 (3), 239-244.

Watarai, H. (2006). Trend of Research and Development for Magnesium Alloys. Science and Technology Trends 18, 84-97.

Wu, D., Chen, R.S., Tang, W.N., Han, E.H. (2012). Influence of texture and grain size on the room-temperature ductility and tensile behavior in a Mg-Gd-Zn alloy processed by rolling and forging. Mater. Design 41, 306-313.

Yarkadaş, G., Kumruoğlu, L.C., Şevik, H. (2018). The effect of Cerium addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of high pressure die cast Mg-5Sn alloy. Mater. Charact. 136, 152-156.

Yuan, Y., Huang, Y., Wei, Q. (2019). Effects of Zr Addition on Thermodynamic and Kinetic Properties of Liquid Mg- 6Zn-xZr Alloys. Metals 9 (5), 607.

Zhang, M., Chen, C., Liu, C., Wang, S. (2018). Study on Porous Mg-Zn-Zr ZK61 Alloys Produced by Laser Additive Manufacturing. Metals 8 (8), 635.

Zhou, B., Liu, W., Wu, G., Zhang, L., Zhang, X., Ji, H., Ding, W. (2020). Microstructure and mechanical properties of sandcast Mg-6Gd-3Y-0.5Zr alloy subject to thermal cycling treatment. J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 43, 208-219.



How to Cite

Cenk Kumruoglu, L. . (2021). Thermal analysis and wear behavior of shell mold cast and graphite mold cast Mg-4Zn-(x)Zr alloys. Revista De Metalurgia, 57(1), e189.