Problems in laser repair-cladding a surface AISI D2 heat treated tool steel


  • J. J. Candel Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia
  • V. Amigó Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia
  • J. A. Ramos Instituto Tecnológico de Óptica, Color e Imagen (AIDO)
  • D. Busquets Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia



Laser cladding, Tool steel, EBSD, Austenite, Microstructure


The aim of the present work is to establish the relationship between laser cladding process parameters (Power, Process Speed and Powder feed rate) and AISI D2 tool steel metallurgical transformations, with the objective of optimizing the processing conditions during real reparation. It has been deposited H13 tool steel powder on some steel substrates with different initial metallurgical status (annealed or tempered) using a coaxial laser cladding system. The microstructure of the laser clad layer and substrate heat affected zone (HAZ) was characterized by Optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD). Results show that the process parameters (power, process speed, feed rate…) determine the dimensions of the clad layer and are related to the microstructure formation. Although it is simple to obtain geometrically acceptable clads (with the right shape and dimensions) in many cases occur some harmful effects as carbide dilution and non-equilibrium phases formation which modify the mechanical properties of the coating. Specifically, the presence of retained austenite in the substrate-coating interface is directly related to the cooling rate and implies a hardness diminution that must be avoided. It has been checked that initial metallurgical state of the substrate has a big influence in the final result of the deposition. Tempered substrates imply higher laser absorption and heat accumulation than the ones in annealed condition. This produces a bigger HAZ. For this reason, it is necessary to optimize process conditions for each reparation in order to improve the working behaviour of the component.


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How to Cite

Candel, J. J., Amigó, V., Ramos, J. A., & Busquets, D. (2010). Problems in laser repair-cladding a surface AISI D2 heat treated tool steel. Revista De Metalurgia, 46(4), 340–350.




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