Revista de Metalurgia, Vol 49, No 3 (2013)

Revisión de fenómenos de orden en aleaciones hierro-silicio


https://doi.org/10.3989/revmetalm.1223

F. González
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University - Parque Científico Universidad de Valladolid, Bélgica

Y. Houbaert
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Bélgica

Resumen


El acero al silicio es una aleación de importancia industrial, caracterizada por propiedades magnéticas blandas, bajas pérdidas por corrientes de Foucault y baja magnetostricción. Los aceros al silicio tienen ciclo de histéresis estrecho, lo que es una ventaja en aplicaciones con campos electromagnéticos, como transformadores, generadores, núcleos de motores eléctricos y otros componentes industriales. A pesar de su incomparable valor industrial, no hay convenio sobre la estructura atómica del acero al silicio. Obtener mayor conocimiento sobre los procesos de orden no sólo podría explicar las propiedades magnéticas sino que también podría abrir vías para la reducción de sus características más débiles, como su fragilidad, la cual afecta negativamente a la fabricación del acero al silicio y se asocia con altos costes de producción. Esta revisión resume los últimos conocimientos sobre orden en acero al silicio y describe las técnicas experimentales más importantes usadas para estudiar su estructura. Además, se da una explicación sobre la construcción de la parte rica en hierro del diagrama de fases del Fe-Si. Por último se ilustra la influencia del orden en las propiedades magnéticas y mecánicas.

Palabras clave


Orden; Aleaciones hierro-silicio; Fases intermetálicas; Propiedades mecánicas; Diagrama de fases

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