Revista de Metalurgia, Vol 52, No 4 (2016)

Desarrollo de las aleaciones de titanio y tratamientos superficiales para incrementar la vida útil de los implantes


https://doi.org/10.3989/revmetalm.084

Joan Lario-Femenía
Universitat Politècnica de València, Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales, España

Angélica Amigó-Mata
Universitat Politècnica de València, Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales, España

Ángel Vicente-Escuder
Universitat Politècnica de València, Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales, España

Francisco Segovia-López
Universitat Politècnica de València, Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales, España

Vicente Amigó-Borrás
Universitat Politècnica de València, Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales, España

Resumen


El envejecimiento de la población junto con el incremento de la esperanza de vida, obligan al desarrollo de prótesis que presenten un periodo de vida útil cada vez mayor. El éxito clínico de los implantes está basado en la consecución de la osteointegración. Por lo tanto, las prótesis metálicas necesitan disponer de una compatibilidad mecánica con el hueso que sustituyen, que se consigue mediante una combinación de bajo módulo elástico, alta resistencia a la rotura y a fatiga. La mejora, a corto y largo plazo, de la osteointegración es función de múltiples factores, de entre los cuales son de gran importancia su diseño macroscópico y dimensional, el material y la topografía superficial del implante. Este artículo se centra en resumir las ventajas que presentan el titanio y sus aleaciones para ser empleadas como biomateriales, y la evolución que han sufrido estas, en las últimas décadas, para mejorar su biocompatibilidad. En consecuencia, se ha recapitulado la evolución que han sufrido los implantes, resumiéndose a través de tres generaciones. En los últimos años se ha incrementado el interés en los tratamientos superficiales de las prótesis metálicas, con el objetivo de alcanzar una integración del tejido óseo duradera y en el menor tiempo posible. En este artículo se exponen varios tratamientos superficiales utilizados actualmente para modificar la rugosidad o para obtener recubrimientos superficiales; cabe destacar la oxidación electroquímica con tratamiento térmico, para modificar la estructura cristalina de los óxidos de titanio. Tras la revisión bibliográfica llevada a cabo para la redacción de este artículo, las aleaciones ? de titanio, con una superficie de nanotubos obtenida mediante oxidación electroquímica y una etapa posterior de tratamiento térmico para obtener una estructura cristalina, son la opción de futuro para mejorar la biocompatibilidad a largo plazo de las prótesis de titanio.

Palabras clave


Aleaciones β de titanio; Anodizado; Biocompatibilidad; Nanotubos; Osteointegración; Tratamientos superficiales; Tratamiento térmico

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Referencias


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